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Институт президенства в США

Институт президенства в США


Introduction. 3

Constitution USA.. 3

Nation Grows. Washington Through Jackson. Jefferson. 5

Presidents of the United States. 7

Thomas Jefferson. 8

Jefferson's Reason. 8

The “American Creed" and Mankind's Spiritual History. 9

Jacksonian Democracy. 11

Jonh F. Kennedy. 12

Presidents at a Glance. 18

Excerpts from Inaugural Addresses of American Presidents. 22

The literature. 24



The US is a federal Union of 50 states each of them has its own government. The seat of the central (federal) government is Washington, D.C.

The population of the USA is about 250 million people; most of the population lives in towns and cities.

The United States is rich in natural and mineral resources. It produces copper, oil, iron ore and coal. It's a highly developed industrial and agricultural country. There are many big cities in the USA, such as New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, Philadelphia and others. The national capital is Washington, D.C. Its population is about 3.4 million. It was built in the late eighteenth century as the centre of government. It was named after George Washington, the first president of USA and general of war.

The USA are the fourth largest country in the World (after Russia, Canada, and China). It occupies the southern part of North America and stretches from the Pacific to the Atlantic Ocean. It also includes Alaska in the North and Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean. The total area of the country is about nine and half million square kilometers. The USA borders on Canada in the North and on Mexico in the South. It also has a sea border with Russia.

The USA is a presidential republic. The legislative branch of the US Government, or the Congress, represents all of the American states. It consists of two parts: the House of Representatives and the Senate. Each state has two senators, who are elected every 6 years. A senator must be at least 30 years old, a citizen of the US for 9 years and live the state she or he will represent. A representative must be at least 25 years old, a citizen for 7 years and live in the state.

USA - the very first state accepted the constitution. It is one of the first countries which have established democracy by the basic form of board. In this report we shall tell about the reasons of occurrence of the constitution and about its influence on development of the state on an example of president's institute.

Constitution USA

With independence came many problems. The U. S. were joined together under one government by the Articles of Confederation. The articles listed the powers of the central government and the powers of the states. There was a national Congress made up of representatives from each state. But Congress had almost no power at all. The 13 states acted like 13 separate little nations. There were many times when states would not cooperate with the central government. They were too busy quarrelling with each other. The U. S. was in danger of falling.

In May 1787 a meeting began in Philadelphia to change the Articles of Confederation. Representatives from all the states except Rhode Island were present. It was soon decided that whole new constitution had to be written. A constitution is set of laws by which a country is governed.

This meeting became known as the Constitutional Convention. Washington was chosen president of the convention. A 81-year-old Benjamin Franklin took part in its work. A new group of first-rate leaders were at this meeting. Among these leaders were  James Madison and Gouverneur Morris. The people who attended the convention did their work very well. The Constitution has lasted to the present.

What kind of government would be the best for the USA?

The delegates all agreed that the new government should continue to be a republic. This means that the people would elect representatives to manage their country.

The delegates knew that they wanted a federal government. In such a government the power is divided between the national and the state governments. The national government would collect taxes and borrow money. It would control trade with foreign countries and between states. The national government would print or coin money. It alone could declare war. All other powers were left to the states. Matters within a state would be settled by that state.

The members of the Constitutional Convention wanted a government that would protect the people's rights, not take them away. So they divided the government's power into three parts, or branches. This is called separation of powers.

The legislative branch was the Congress. Its major job was to make laws. The executive branch was the President and his helpers. It was their job to carry out the laws the Congress passed. The judicial branch was the courts. They had to decide the meaning of the laws.

Each branch had some power over the other two. No one branch would be allowed more power than the others.

A big debate at the convention was over the matter of who would control Congress. Large states wanted representatives to Congress based on the number of people in the state. Small states wanted an equal vote with the larger states. This problem was solved by giving Congress two parts. Regardless of size each state would send two representatives to the Senate, one part of Congress. States with more people would send more delegates to the House of Representatives, the other part of Congress. In order for a law to be passed, it had to go through both parts of Congress.

The new Constitution included a way to make changes, called amendments. If things didn't work out, or if the USA grew о changes, the Constitution could be amended without being entirely changed. This was to prove helpful very soon.

Nine state governments had to approve the Constitution be fore it could become the law of the land. Many states refused to do so unless the Constitution listed people's rights as well as the rights of the government. They argued that important freedoms must be written down. Once the states were promised that this would happen, the Constitution would become law.

James Madison saw to it that these freedoms were written down. Madison had been very active at the Constitutional Convention. After the Convention he worked hard to explain the Constitution to the people. Once the new government was started, Madison wrote many amendments that would make rights like freedom the press, speech and worship part of the Constitution. Ten of these amendments were passed by the states. These first ten amendments to the Constitution are known as the Bill of Rights.

Nation Grows. Washington Through Jackson. Jefferson

April 30, 1789 was Inauguration Day for the young nation's first President. An inauguration is the ceremony that puts someone office. Washington did not want to be President. He wanted to live at his beautiful home Mount Vernon. But he put his love for his country ahead of his own wishes. Washington traveled from Mount Vernon to New York City. New York City was the nation's first capital. Washington took the oath of office on the Bible. He promised to do his best to keep, protect and defend the Constitution. The Constitution listed the powers and duties of the President.

The new government was started with a Constitution, a Congress, a President and little else. Both Washington and the Congress knew that the new government would have to show its strength very quickly.

The job of President was too big for one person alone. Congress formed three departments to help Washington. These departments went to work on three of the biggest problems facing the new nation.

The State Department would work on relations with other nations. The War Department would build a national navy and army. It is now called the Department of Defense. The Treasury Department would handle the nation's money problems.

Washington chose able leaders for each of these departments. Each leader would be called a secretary. Thomas Jefferson became secretary of state; Henry Knox, secretary of war and Alexander Hamilton secretary of treasury.

Each of these men advised the President. Final decisions were made by the President, however.

The group of advisors became known as the Cabinet. Future Presidents would all have a Cabinet.

The Constitution called for a third branch of government - a Supreme Court. All questions about the Constitution and federal laws would be settled by this court. Washington appointed John Jay as head of the Supreme Court. He was called the Chief Justice.

In 1791 Congress passed a tax law in order to raise money for the new government. Some people thought they would rather fight than pay these taxes. Washington formed an army to stop them. He showed future Presidents how to be a strong leader.

The nation also grew and expanded while Washington was President. The new states - Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee - entered the Union.

   Washington could have been President for life. But he didn't feel this was right. He had devoted most of his life to helping his country. Now, he was 65 years old and had served two terms, or four-year periods as President. With the exception of Franklin Roosevelt, every President has followed Washington's two-term tradition. In 1797 Washington retired. He went back to the life he loved at Mount Vernon.

  Не did not enjoy it for long time. On December 12, 1799 he was caught in a snowstorm while riding around his farm and became sick. Two days later he died. The second president be-came John Adams. He was a true patriot as well as a brave and stubborn man. Near the end of Adam's term as President, the government moved from Philadelphia to Washington, D. C. The most important of Adam's deeds was that he took responsibility of the peace with France in 1800.

The third president of the USA was a very remarkable man, Thomas Jefferson. He was a man of many talents: He was a lawyer. He wrote the Declaration of Independence. He was the representative of the United States at the court of the king of France A person who does this kind of work is called a diplomat. He was the first secretary of state, second vice-president and third President of the USA. While he was President the size of the country doubled.

He came from Virginia. He served that state as governor and Congressman. As an architect he drew the plans for many building in Virginia. At the same time he was also a fine violinist and composer. He studied Native American languages. He knew Greek, Latin and Hebrew. He could speak French and Italian.

His work as scientist and inventor shouldn't be forgotten. He did practical things such as improving farming methods by in venting a new type of plow. He experimented with different seeds. He worked much in education.

Jefferson's greatest accomplishment as President was the Louisiana Purchase. At this time Louisiana included just above all the land from the Mississippi River to the Rocky Mountains. The Mississippi River was a highway for those Americans who lived west of the Appalachian Mountains. They took their goods downriver to the port of New Orleans. New Orleans was not part of the U. S. It belonged to France which had received the city and the rest of what is called the Louisiana Territory from Spain in 1800.

Americans living in the West were afraid that France would not allow them to use the port of New Orleans for trade. This was because Napoleon wanted to start another French empire in America. The Americans were to try to buy New Orleans from the French for ten million dollars.

Haiti was a French colony in the Caribbean Sea. Napoleon needed a strong naval base in Haiti if he wanted a French empire in America. But a former slave Toussaint L'Ouverture led the people of Haiti in successful fight for freedom at this time. With out Haiti, Louisiana lost some of its appeal for Napoleon. It also looked as though France would soon be fighting Great Britain. If so, France would be unable to defend Louisiana. The soldiers would be needed in Europe. Napoleon decided to sell the entire Louisiana territory to the USA. It was bought for 15 million dollars. By this act the USA doubled its size.

Jefferson wanted to know more about Louisiana. He wished to find out about the Native Americans, the animals, the minerals, the climate and the type of land. To make such an exploration Jefferson chose Merewether Lewis, his personal secretary, and William dark, Lewis's close friend. They were to try to find a route all the way to the Pacific Ocean. They built a fort and spent the winter on the shores of the Pacific. In the spring they started the trip home, finally reaching St Louis in September 1806. Their diary was a document of great importance. Jefferson received an excellent report of their journey. He learned a great deal about the geography of the new territory. He learned about the animals, trees and plants there. The work of Lewis and dark gave the USA a claim to the Oregon Country. In 1846 this area became part of the USA.

Presidents of the United States

Who can be President? Any natural-born citizen of the United States who is over the age of thirty-five and has lived in the United States for fourteen years or more.

What does a President do? The President is the chief executive of the United States. According to the Constitution, he "shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed." From time to time, he informs Congress in his State of the Union message what has been done and what needs to be done.

Although he cannot force Congress to act, he can suggest a program for them to consider. And as leader of his political party, he can often see that program is carried out, when his party has a majority of seats. He can also prevent Congress from acting by using the presidential veto.

The President plays the chief part in shaping foreign policy. With the Senate's approval, he makes treaties with other nations and appoint ambassadors. But he can also make executive agreements with other nations without approval of the Senate.

He nominates Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices, and many other high officials. These nominations must be approved by the Senate However, he can fill thousands of other important posts under his own power.

The President is Commander in Chief of the Armed Forces and commissions officers in all branches of the service.

How is the President elected? The voters of each state choose a number of electors equal to the number of senators and representatives they have in Congress. The electoral college, made up of the electors from every vote for the candidate supported by the voters of their state When there are more than two presidential candidates and none gets a clear majority, Congress selects the President from the three candidates who received the most votes.

How long is the President in office? The President is elected to a term of four years. Since Article XXII of the Constitution became effective, in 1951, no President may be elected to more than two terms

When does the President take office? The new President takes office at noon of January 20 of the year following his election, on taking this oath of office: "I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution of the United States."

Thomas Jefferson

Jefferson's Reason

Jefferson's words are written and spoken in the USA many times everyday; most often as if the words, phrases and ideas, by themselves alone, constituted some sort of complete statements, some sort of ultimate and final truths about man, world and society. This is a deep, though very popular mistake; one this piece shall try somewhat to amend. The phrases and ideas are admittedly grand, noble and inspiring; most Americans - at least those native born - do not read these words without emotion (due of course to intellectual and emotional culture and education). They are an essential part of what it is to be an "American". Even persons in the USA who may only be educated in the most meager way (and there are unfortunately tens of millions in the USA who are labeled "functionally-illiterate"), often still can at least repeat portions of these famous words quoted above. (This author has observed some of the very poorest, least educated, most socially- and economically - disadvantaged people in America- whose daily lives are surrounded by chronic poverty; drugs, uncontrolled crime and random violence; joblessness; hopelessness;

broken families, etc. - repeat small parts of Jefferson's words, in trying to explain their lives. Jefferson could never have pictured this.)

Jefferson had been raised as a child in the moderate beliefs, doctrines and services of the Anglican Church; it had its original lineage from the Roman Catholic Church, and generally in America became the Episcopal Church. It was the established church of the Virginia colony where Jefferson lived. (Later Jefferson would be influential in disestablishing this church. In other words, he was raised as a boy in the traditions and beliefs of the Christian cosmos with its ancient elements. But this would soon be profoundly challenged. When he, beginning at the age of 16, attended the College of William and Mary, he began a rapid transition from a mild, uncritical world of theological beliefs the Anglican Church is not one of emotional fervor in religion) into the modem critical ideas of the so-called Enlightenment, into the "Age of Reason". And in fact it is necessary to understand not only what Jefferson believed when he wrote Declaration of Independence at the age of 33, but what he did not believe, in order to clearly recognize the meaning of the "American Creed".

From his personal notebooks - where he wrote ideas which were of real importance to him (they also constitute one of the few sources of insight we have as to the young Jefferson's mind) - we are able to see into his new ideas of the world. Jefferson, while young, was deeply affected by his educational experiences at the College of William and Mary, both by his personal contacts (for example, he came to dine and converse regularly with the Governor of Virginia, whose father had worked for Sir Isaac Newton), as well as by his readings. While only one of the seven faculty members at the College was not an Anglican clergyman: Dr. William Small of Scotland; it was he who the young Jefferson was most influenced by. Of him Jefferson later wrote that he was "a man profound in most of the useful branches of science...from his conversations I got my first views of the expansion of science and of the system of things in which we are placed." (This is a clear, if later-written, indication of Jefferson's transition from a theological-religious to a natural scientific world-view.)

We know from his notebooks that be was deeply impacted by the writings concerning religious and philosophical themes and history of Lord Boling broke (1678-1751), whose works are a rather tedious, rationalist, empiricist critique of all of the religious and philosophical systems then known of in the world. Jefferson seems, from his note-taking, to have read all of the several volumes at this early period as a student. (Jefferson would eventually come to assemble one of the greatest personal libraries of his time in America; it became the core of the current Library of Congress, for, after the British burnt the first one in 1814, Jefferson sold his personal library of about 6,500 books to the US Congress to rebuild its library. Even with this comparatively small reading in Boling broke, Jefferson received a broader and more solid intellectual education than today most Americans do after many years of schooling.)

If Jefferson lived uncritically in the Christian cosmos as a child, Boling broke's critical works (and not only this author) would have deeply affected the Jefferson's young understanding - and this effect in his ideas and philosophy lasted for the rest of his life. So that when we look to see what Jefferson did mean of man and cosmos when he wrote the words still famous around the world today, we find that he did not hold a religious or spiritual view of man and cosmos, as had the early settlers (and still many of Jefferson's contemporaries) of the "age of faith" in American history. Indeed, Jefferson had rejected most of their ideas and beliefs, believing rather in a material, physical, natural scientific view of man and world. (He held a Deist view of God, as the original creator, who had ordered nature and life through the "laws of nature", but otherwise was detached from earthly life. And in general he tended to reduce all religion to morality.) Closer to Darwin in spirit and time (of whose later writings he could know nothing of course), Jefferson would later symptomatically place busts of Bacon, Locke and Newton in his self- designed home of Monticello - which is now become a place of American pilgrimage. This is an indication of his lifelong adherence - beginning as a student - to a natural-scientific view of man and world. Jefferson rejected most religions and metaphysical philosophies and their ideas as myths. (He especially disliked for example Plato, St. Paul, Athanasius and Calvin.) Sometimes he viewed them as the deliberate fabrications of priests and kings to manipulate and control their people. Jefferson thought that man's "reason" should rule man.

The “American Creed" and Mankind's Spiritual History

Jefferson's words came to be repeated on e. g. "Fourth of July Celebrations" throughout America over the years and came to be a sort of creedal statement as to what it means to be "American" - as we saw also in the President's address in November of 1995 But in fact very few Americans are clear about either the original context or meaning of the "American Creed" - the "cosmos" of these words - or of Jefferson’s rejection of most of the spiritual beliefs which many of these Americans personally hold, commonly blended together with Jefferson's contrasting, antithetically-conceived grand expressions! In other words, these ideas from 1776, still alive today, are in fact only truly to be understood within a scientific-natural view of man, nature, society. God and world. And this is so even though the religious, spiritual and philosophical beliefs of the vast majority of the US people - who often use them in close association with Jefferson's phrases, when they explain and understand America and life - were in fact rejected by Jefferson before (and after) he wrote them. His human and social ideals were conceived within a natural cosmos of man; they are ideals of man in this world. He had rejected a spiritual cosmos and anthropology to man.

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