Scotland ()

III. Scotlands beautiful capital.

1. Introduction

Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland, is one of the most beautiful cities in Europe. This distinction is partly an accident of Nature, for the city is built upon jumble of hills and valleys; however, during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries the natural geography was enhanced by the works of a succession of distinguished Georgian and Victorian architects.

Evidence that Stone Ages settlers lived in Edinburgh has been found on Calton Hill[7], Arthurs Seat[8] and Castlehill, and the towns early history centres around Castlehill. Some historians believe that this volcanic hill was a tribal stronghold as early as 600 BC.

One tribe who definitely made their mark were a group of Nothumbrians, whose 7th-century king Edwin[9], is thought to have given his name to the castle and town. Burgh is a Scottish word for borough (a small town).

2. Edinburghs Castle

The Royal Castle of Edinburgh is the most powerful symbol of Scotland. For centuries, this mighty fortress has dominated its surroundings with a majesty, which has deeply impressed many generations.

The volcanic castle rock in Edinburgh was born over 340 million years ago following a violent eruption deep in the earths crust. Its story as a place of human habitation stretches back a mere 3,000 years, to the late Bronze Age. It was evidently a thriving hill-top settlement when Roman soldiers marched by in the first century AD.

The place had become an important royal fortress by the time of Queen Margarets[10] death there in November 1093. Throughout the Middle Ages Edinburgh Castle ranked as one of the major castles of the kingdom and its story is very much the story of Scotland. But within the building of the Palace of Holyroodhouse in the early 16th century, the castle was used less and less as a royal residence, though it remained symbolically the heart of the kingdom.

Edinburgh Castle is the home of the Scottish Crown Jewels, the oldest Royal Regalia in Britain. The Honours of Scotland the Crown, Sword and Sceptre were shaped in Italy and Scotland during the reigns of King James IV and king James V and were first used together as coronation regalia in 1543.

After the 1707 Treaty of Union between Scotland and England, the Honours were locked away in the Crown Room and the doors were walled up. 111 years later, the Honours were rediscovered and immediately displayed to the public. Displayed with the Crown Jewels is the Stone of Destiny, returned to Scotland after 700 years in England.

Edinburgh Castle boasts having the giant siege gun Mons Meg in its military collection. Mons Meg (or simply Mons) was made at Mons (in present-day Belgium) in 1449. It was at the leading edge of artillery technology at the time: it weighs 6040 kilogrammes and its firing gunstones weigh 150 kilogrammes. It soon saw action against the English. But it great weigh made it ponderously slow to drag around it could only make 5 kilometres a day. By the middle of the 16th century it was retired from military service and restricted to firing salutes from the castle ramparts. It was returned to the castle in 1829.

3. The Military Tattoo

For many visitors the castle means nothing without the Edinburgh Military Tattoo[11] which is taking place at the Castle Esplanade. The esplanade had been a narrow rocky ridge until the middle of the 18th century when the present platform was created as a parade ground.

The signal (Tattoo) indicated that soldiers should return to their quarters and that the beer in the taverns should be turned off. This signal was transmitted by drum beat each evening. Eventually this developed into a ceremonial performance of military music by massed bands.

It began when the city held its first International Festival in the summer of 1947. The Army staged an evening military display on the Esplanade. The march and counter-march of the pipes and drums which was held near one of the most dramatic places anywhere in the world made it an immediate success. The Tattoo has been repeated every summer since on the same site. Each Tattoo closes with another tradition- the appearance of the lone piper on the battlements of the castle.

4. St. Giles Cathedral

If Edinburgh Castle has been at the centre of Scottish life for 9 centuries, St. Giles Cathedral, the High Kirk of Edinburgh, has been the religious heart of Scotland for even longer.

In 854 there was a church. It belonged to Lindisfarne, where Columbas monks first brought the Gospel from Iona. In 1150, the monks of St. Giles were farming lands round about and a bigger church was built by the end of the century. The first parish church of Edinburgh was dedicated to St. Giles, a saint popular in France. It was probably due to the Auld Alliance of Scotland and France against the common enemy of England.

St GilesCathedral is one of the most historic and romantic buildings in Scotland. Founded in 1100s, this church has witnessed executions, riots and celebrations. Its famous crown spire has dominated Edinburghs skyline for over 500 years. Scotland was a Catholic nation until the Reformation in the mid-16th century.

John Knox[12], the fiery Trumpeter of God, who preached against Popery, brought St. Giles into great prominence. Knoxs aim was to create a reformed Church of Scotland, to banish popery, to strengthen democracy and to set up a system of comprehensive education. The religious transition was to take 130 years of struggle to achieve.

Many of the famous Scots are commemorated in the church, including R. Burns and R. L. Stevenson.

The Giles is famous for its Thistle Chapel, which is home to the Order of the Thistle[13] and honours some of the greatest Scots of the last 300 years. This exquisite little room will take ones breath away. Its magnificent carvings and stonework evoke the ancient origins of the order and will amaze anyone with a wealth of details associated with Scotland, for example, the angel that plays the bagpipe.

5. Edinburghs museums.

In the field of arts, Edinburgh has a host of outstanding attractions for different tastes and interests. The Scottish National Portrait Gallery provides a unique visual history of Scotland, told through portraits of the figures who shaped it: royals and rebels, poets and philosophers, heroes and villains. All the portraits are of Scots, but not all are by Scots. The collection also holds works by great English, European and American masters. Since the Gallery first opened its doors, the collection has grown steadily to form a kaleidoscope of Scottish life and history. Among the most famous portraits are Mary, Queen of Scots, Ramsays portrait of philosopher David Hume, Nasmyths portrait of Robert Burns, and Raeburns Sir Walter Scott. In addition to paintings, it displays sculptures, miniatures, coins, medallions, drawings, watercolours and photographs.

The Royal Museum and the Museum of Scotland are two museums under one roof. The Royal Museum is Scotlands premier museum and international treasure-house. It contains material from all over the world. A vast and varied range of objects are on display from the endangered Giant Panda to working scale models of British steam engines. The Museum of Scotland tells the remarkable story of a remarkable country from the geological dawn of time to modern-day life in Scotland. The variety and richness of Scotlands long and vibrant history, is brought to life by the fascinating stories each object and every gallery has to tell.

At the heart of the museum is the Kingdom of the Scots. This is the story of Scotlands emergence as a distinctive nation able to take its place on the European stage. Here are the icons of Scotlands past objects connected with some of the most famous events and best-known figures in Scottish history, from the Declaration of Arbroath[14] to Mary, Queen of Scots.

Described as the noisiest museum in the world, the Museum of Childhood is a favourite with adults and children alike. It is a treasure house, full of objects telling of childhood, past and present. The museum has five public galleries. A list of their contents makes it sound like a magical department store. There are riding toys, push and pull toys, dolls prams, yachts and boats, slot machines, a punch and judy, a nickelodeon, a carousel horse, dolls houses, toy animals, zoos, farms and circuses, trains, soldiers, optical toys, marionettes, soft toys, games and much, much more.

In addition, the museum features a time tunnel (with reconstructions of a school room, street scene, fancy dress party and nursery from the days of our grandparents) an activity area, and video presentations. The museum opened in 1955 was the first museum in the world to specialize in the history of childhood. It also helps to find out how children have been brought up, dressed and educated in decades gone by.

The Peoples Story is a museum with a difference. As the name implies, it uses oral history, reminiscence, and written sources to tell the story of the lives, work and leisure of te ordinary people of Edinburgh, from the late 18th century to the present day. The museum is filled with the sounds, sights and smells of the past a prison cell, town crier, reform parade, coopers workshop, fishwife, servant at work, dressmaker, 1940s kitchen, a wash-house, pub and tea-room.

These reconstructions are complimented by displays of photographs, everyday objects and rare artifacts, such as the museums outstanding collections of trade union banners and friendly society regalia.

6. Where life is one long festival.

Edinburgh may be called the Athens of the North, but from mid-August to early September thats probably because its hot, noisy and overpriced and crawling with foreign students.

Over the next three weeks the population will double as half a million visitors invade Britains most majestic city.

If you are a theatre buff or a comedy fan, Edinburgh at Festival time[15] will be your idea of heaven. But the city is a centre for culture all year round.

In the run-up to Christmas there are hundreds of shows, including Noel Cowards Relative Values at the Kings Theatre and the Anatomy Performance Companys dance theatre at the Traverse. Romeo and Juliet is at the Traverse, Les Miserables at the Playhouse and The Recruiting Officer at the Lyceum. And outside Festival time, youll find it a lot easier to get tickets.

As for the visual arts, Edinburghs museums more than match any of the special exhibitions mounted during the Festival.

Most attractive is the Scottish National Gallery of Modern Art, in a stately home on the outskirts of the city. Here you can find unbeatable masterpieces created by Picasso, Matisse and Hockney.

If shopping is more your stile, Jenners[16], on Princes Street, is Edinburghs answer to Harrods. And the Scottish Gallery on George Street is a happy hunting ground for collectors of fine art. Edinburgh is full of good hotels but its dramatic sky-line is dominated by two enormous hostelries at either end of Princes Street. The Caledonian and the Balmoral (formerly the North British) were built by rival railway companies in the days when competing steam trains raced from London.

You can also have a look at the Gothic monument to Sir Walter Scott, which stands in East Princes Street Gardens and was begun in 1840. It is rather high, and narrow staircase (a total of 287 steps in several stages) offers spectacular views of the city. Not far from the monument in Princes Street Gardens one can find the oldest Floral Clock in the world, built in 1903, consisting of about 25,000 flowers and plants.

Like all the best capitals, Edinburgh boasts cosmopolitan influences. Asian shopkeepers sell Samosas and Scotch (mutton) pies in the same thick Scots brogue, and the city is littered with Italian restaurants.

The city has three universities: the University of Edinburgh (1583), Herriot-Watt[17] (established in 1885; received university status in 1966) and Napier[18] University.

Edinburgh is also an industrial centre. Its industries include printing, publishing, banking, insurance, chemical manufacture, electronics, distilling, brewing.






Oh Scotia! My dear, my native soil!

Robert Burns

Scotland is a country of great variety with its own unique character and strong tradition. Its cities offer a mixture of designer lifestyle and age old tradition, while the countryside ranges from Britains highest mountains and waterfalls to the most stunning gorges and glens.

Scotlands national tradition is rather intense and much alive even now and is rather rare in the modern world. Scotland is part of Britain. But it is not England. The Scottishness is a real thing, not an imaginary feeling, kind of picturesque survival of the past. It is based on Scots law which is different from the English. Scotland has its own national heroes fought in endless battles against the English ( William Wallace, Sir John the Grahame , Robert Bruce and others).

1.'A wee dram'

Scots have their own national drink, and you need only ask for Scotch, and thats quite enough, you get what you wanted. More than half of Scotland's malt whisky distilleries are in the Grampian Highlands, and thus a third of the world's malt whisky is distilled here. A combination of fertile agricultural land, a sheltered, wet climate and the unpolluted waters of the River Spey and its tributaries, combined with the obvious enthusiasm of the locals for the work (and the product!) mean it is an ideal place to produce malt whisky. Many distilleries are open to visitors, and often offer samples!

The Scots are fond of the following joke about scotch:

A young man arrives in a small village situated near Loch Ness. There he meets an old man and asks him:

-         When does the Loch Ness Monster usually appear?

-         Usually it appears after the third glass of Scotch, - answered the


2.Scottish national dress.

There is also a distinctive national dress, the kilt. Strictly speaking it should be warn only by men; it is made of wool and looks like a pleated skirt. The kilt is a relic of the time when the clan system existed in the Highlands. But its origin is very ancient. The Celtic tribes who fought Ceasar wore kilts. When the Celts moved north up through Cornwall, and Wales, and Ireland, and eventually to Scotland, they brought the kilt with them. A thousand years ago, there was nothing specially Scottish about it. Now it has become the Highlands national dress and is worn in many parts of Scotland. It is probably the best walking-dress yet invented by man: there is up to 5 metres of material in it; it is thickly pleated st the back and sides; it is warm, it is airly, leaves the legs free for climbing; it stands the rain for hours before it gets wet through; it hangs well above the mud and the wet grass; briefly it is warm for a cold day, and cool for a warm one. And, what is more, if a Highlander is caught in the mountains by the night, he has but to unfasten his kilt and wrap it around him 5 metres of warm wool hell sleep comfortably enough the night through.

3.A few words about tartan.

Every Scottish clan had its own tartan.[19] People in Highlands were very good weavers. They died their wool before weaving it; the dyes were made from various roots and plants which grew in this or that bit of land. Therefore one clan dyed its wool in reddish colours, another in green, and so on. And they decorated them differently so as to distinguish the clansmen in battle (especially between neighboring clans which happened rather often).

On the subject of shopping for tartan, the choice is wide. Some designs are associated with particular clans and retailers will be happy to help you find your own pattern. By no means all tartans belong to specific clans several are district tartans, representing particular areas. The fascinating story of the tartan itself is told at the Museum of Scottish Tartans.

The museum possesses lots of rare exhibits. One of them is the remarkable womans Plaid or Arisaid, the oldest dated in the world: 1726. The Arisaid, worn only by women, reached from head to heels, belted at the waist and pinned at the breast.

The oldest piece of Tartan found in Scotland dates back from about 325 AD. The cloth was found in a pot near Falkirk[20], a simple check in two shades of brown, a long way from the checked and coloured tartans that came to be worn in the Highlands of Scotland in the 1550s. There are now over 2,500 tartan designs, many of them are no more than 20 years old.

4.The national musical instrument of the Scots.

Scotland has its own typical musical instrument, the pipes (sometimes called the bagpipes). The bagpipe was known to the ancient civilizations of the Near East. It was probably introduced into Britain by the Romans. Carvings of bagpipe players on churches and a few words about them in the works of Chaucer and other writers show that it was popular all over the country in the Middle Ages.

In Scotland the bagpipe was first recorded in the 16th century during the reign of James I, who was a very good player, and probably did much to make it popular. For long it has been considered a national Scottish instrument. Even now it is still associated with Scotland.

The sound of the bagpipes is very stirring. The old Highland clans and later the Highland regiments used to go into battle to the sound of the bagpipes.

The bagpipe consists of a reed pipe, the chanter, and a wind bag which provides a regular supply of air to the pipe. The wind pipe is filled either from the mouth or by a bellows which the player works with his arm. The chanter has a number of holes or keys by means of which the tune is played.

5.Highlands dances and games.

You can also find in Scotland its own national dances, Highland dances and Scottish country dances; its own songs (some of which are very popular all aver Britain), its poetry (some of which is famous throughout the English-speaking world), traditions, food and sports, even education, and manners.

Speaking about sports I cant but mention Highland Gatherings or Games held in Braemar. They have been held there since 1832, and since Queen Victoria visited them in 1848 the games have enjoyed royal patronage. The Games consist of piping competitions, tugs-of-war (a test of strength in which two teams pull against other on a rope, each trying to pull the other over the winning line), highland wrestling and dancing, and tossing the caber.[21]

6.The famous Loch Ness.

Fact or fiction, the Loch Ness monster is part of Loch Nesss magnetic appeal to visitors. But there is much more to do and see around the shores of this famous waterway than just monster-spotting, and a pleasant day, or even longer, can be spent exploring the many activities. 24 miles long, a mile wide and up to 700 feet deep Loch Ness is a land-locked fresh water lake lying at the eastern end of the Great Glen[22], a natural geological fault which stretches across the width of Scotland. The loch forms part of the Caledonian Canal completed by the celebrated civil engineer Thomas Telford (1757 1841), in 1822. Telford took 19 years to build the canal, which spared coastal shipping and fishing vessels a voyage through the waters of the Pentland Firth[23].

The story of Nessiterras Rhombopteryx or Nessie for short in Loch Ness has persistent down the centuries. The monster was first mentioned in AD 565 when St Columba allegedly persuaded it not to eat someone. Since records began, in 1933, more than 3000 people have claimed to have seen it, but others are skeptical. They point out that no good photographs exist of the monster, that there have been no eggs found, no dead monsters (can it really be 2563 years old?) nor any other compelling evidence. Believers think the monster is a plesiosaur, an otherwise extinct sea-dwelling reptile. Anyone who did prove conclusively the monster's existence would be hailed as a pioneer, so it is no surprise to learn that monster-spotting is a popular pastime!

The Official Loch Ness Monster Centre is opened all year round and has exhibits showing geology, prehistory and history of Scotland, along with SONAR records and underwater photography relating to the monster.

The Original Visitor Centre offers a half hour video of the monster detailing the research that has taken place, along with a video about Bonnie Prince Charlie.

The loch has been surveyed for decades, by the RAF[24], eminent scientists, cranks, crackpots, mini-submarines and millions of pounds worth of high technology, including NASA[25] computers. And still there is no proof

7. Saint Andrews cross.

The Church of Scotland, a Presbyterian[26] denomination, is the official state church. The Roman Catholic church is second in importance. Other leading denominations are the Episcopal Church in Scotland, Congregationalist, Baptist, Methodist, and Unitarian. Jews are a small minority.

St. Andrews cross is the national flag of Scotland. It consists of two diagonal white stripes crossing on a blue background. The flag forms part of the British national flag (Union Jack).

The flag of Presbyterian Church differs a little bit from that of Scotland. It is also St. Andrews cross but with a little addition: it has a burning bush centered, which signifies presbyterianism.

The symbol comes from the motto of the Presbyterian Church, nec tamen consumebatur (neither was it consumed) referring the bush that burnt, but was not consumed, so will be the church that will last for ever.

St. Andrew is the patron saint of Scotland. He was a New Testament apostle who was martyred on an X-shaped cross. He was said to have given the Pictish army a vision of this cross at the battle of Athenstoneford between King Angus of the Picts and King Authelstan of the Angles. St. Andrew was foisted upon Scotland as its patron when the old Celtic and Culdee centres were superseded by the new bishopric of St. Andrews. His feast-day is 30 November. On this day some Scotsmen wear a thistle[27] in the buttonhole.

One of the greatest treasures of Huntly House Museum (Edinburgh) is the national Covenant, signed by Scotlands Presbyterian leadership in 1638. Covenanters are 17th-century Scottish Presbyterians who bound themselves by covenants to maintain Presbyterianism as the sole religion of Scotland and helped to establish the supremacy of Parliament over the monarch in Scotland and England. Early covenants supporting Protestantism were signed in 1557 and in 1581. In 1638 the covenant of 1581 was revived, and its signatories added a vow to establish Presbyterianism as the state religion of Scotland.

II.Scotland for every season.

If you hunt for the real Scotland, there will be many times when you know you have found it: when you hear your first Highland Piper with the backdrop of Edinburgh Castle; on some late, late evening on a far northern beach as the sun sets into a midsummer sea; or with your first taste of a malt whisky, peat-smoked and tangy; or when you sit in a café with the real Scots. By the way, the Scots are very sociable people. They like to spend their free time together, drinking coffee or scotch and talking. Scottish people are fond of singing at the national music festivals in chorus, at the fairs and in the parks. Most of Scotsmen are optimists. They dont lose their heart and smile in spite of all difficulties.

The real Scotland is not found in a single moment nor is it contained in a single season. Though the moorlands turn purple in summer, Scotland in spring is famed for its clear light and distant horizons, while autumns colours transform the woodlands and what could be more picturesque than snow-capped hills seen from the warmth of your hotel room?

Scenery, history, hospitality, humour, climate, traditions are offered throughout the year.

Even if you can feel it now you should visit Scotland all the same, and see and enjoy this magic country with your own eyes!


Scotland: its early peoples.

The chronology of the main events in the history of Scotland.

1st century Picts prevented Romans from penetrating far into Scotland.

5th 6th centuries Christianity was introduced into Scotland from Ireland.

9th century Kenneth MacAlpin united kingdoms of Scotland.

1263                                                                              Haakon, King of Norway, was defeated by Scots at Battle of Largs.

1292 1306 English domination:

in 1292 1296 Scotland was ruled by John Baliol;

in 1296 1306 Scotland was annexedto England.

1314                                                                              Robert Bruce defeated English at Bannockburn.

1328 England recognized Scottish independence.

1603 James VI became James I of England.

1638 Scottish rebellion against England.

1651 Cromwell conquered Scotland.

1689 Jacobites were defeated at Killiecrankie.

1707 Act of Union with England.

1715, 1745 Failed Jacobites risings against Britain.

1945                                                                              First Scottish nationalist member of British Parliament was elected

Practical part:

1.     Who in Scotland consider themselves of purer Celtic blood?

2.     When was a new Scottish Parliament elected?

3.     What was the Beaker civilization famous for?

4.     Why was it so difficult to control the Highlands and islands?

5.     To whom does Scotland owe its clan system?

6.     Why did Edward I stole the Stone of Destiny?

7.     What do the words written on Edwards grave mean?

8.     Can you explain the name of Scotlands capital, Edinburgh?

9.     What giant thing can Edinburgh Castle boast?

10. What did the Military Tattoo originally mean?

11. Who brought St. Giles Cathedral into great prominence?

12. What is the emblem of Scotland? Where can it be seen?

13. Why are the Royal Museum and the Museum of Scotland worth visiting?

14. Which museum in Scotland is the noisiest in the world? Why?

15. Why do they call Edinburgh the Athens of the North?

16. What is Edinburghs answer to Londons Oxford Street?

17. Where did the national Scottish dress come from?

18. Why was it so important to decorate wool differently?

19. What is the real origin of the bagpipe?

20. What does the motto of the Presbyterian Church mean?


1.     Discovering Britain Pavlozky V. M., St Petersburg, 2000.

2.     Britain in brief Oshepkova V. V., Shustilova I. I., Moscow, 1997.

3.     Across England to Scotland Markova N. N., Moscow, 1971.

4.     Pages of Britains history Kaufman K. I., Kaufman M. U., Obninsk,


5.     An illustrated history of Britain McDowall D., Edinburgh, 1996.

6.     Robert Burns country Swinglehurst E., Edinburgh, 1996.

7.     English for intermediate level Part I, Moscow, 1995.

8.     Welcome to Edinburgh, guide-book 1998/99.

[1] In Scottish lochmeans lake.

[2] Beaker civilization prehistoric people thought to have been of Iberian origin, who spread out over Europe from the 3rd millennium BC. They were skilled in metalworking, and are identified by their use of distinctive earthenware drinking vessels with various design.

[3] Highland Line the division between highland and lowland

[4] Everybody in the clan had the same family name, like MacDonald or MacGregor (mac means son of). The clan had its own territory and was ruled by a chieftain.

[5] so they called the Saxons (and still call the English)

[6] Act of Union 1707 act of Parliament that brought about the union of England and Scotland

[7] Calton Hill overlooks Central Edinburgh from the east.

[8] Arthurs Seat hill of volcanic origin to the east of the centre of Edinburgh. It forms the core of Holyrood Park and is a dominant landmark: Castlehill is the rock of volcanic origin on which Edinburgh Castle is situated.

[9] Edwin (c585 633) king of Nothumbria from 617. He captured and fortified Edinburgh, which was named after him.

[10] St. Margaret ( c1045 1093 ) Queen of Scotland. She was canonized in 1251 in recognition of her benefactions to the church.

[11] Tattoo the word derives from the Dutch word tap-toe, which means turn off the taps.

[12] Knox, John (1513 (1514) 1572) Scottish reformer, founder of the Church of Scotland

[13] The Order of the Thistle Scotlands highest order

[14] Declaration of Arbroath Declaration 26 April 1320 by Scottish nobles to their loyalty to King Robert I and of Scotlands identity as a kingdom independent of England.

[15] Edinburgh Festival has annually been held since 1947. It takes place from August to September and includes music, drama, opera and art exhibition.

[16] Jenners the oldest independent department store in the world.

[17] Heriot, Jeorge (1563 1624) Scottish goldsmith and philanthropist; Watt, James (1736 1819) Scottish engineer who developed the steam engine in 1760.

[18] Napier, John (1550 1617) Scottish mathematician who invented logarithms in 1614.

[19] Tartan it is traditional Scottish drawing which consists of wide and narrow cross stripes of different colour and size; the softest wool of vivid colouring.

[20] Falkirk unitary authority, Scotland, 37 kilometres west of Edinburgh.

[21] Tossing the caber Scottish athletic sport. The caber (a tapered tree trunk about 6 metres long, weighing about 100 kilograms) is held in the palms of the cupped hands and rests on the shoulder. The thrower runs forward and tosses the caber, rotating it through 180 degrees so that it lands on its opposite end and falls forward. The best competitors toss the caber about 12 metres.

[22] Great Glen valley in Scotland following coast-to-coast geological fault line, which stretches over 100 kilometres south-west from Inverness on the North Sea to Fort William on the Atlantic coast.

[23] Pentland Firth channel separated the Orkney Islands from the northern mainland of Scotland.

[24] RAF Royal Air Force, the British airforce.

[25] NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration, a US government organization that controls space travel and the scientific study of space.

[26] Presbyterianism a religion close to Protestantism

[27] Thistle is also the emblem of the whole Scotland.

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